Bladerunner 2014 – Dates
August 2nd - Teacher/Mentor Workshop — Exploreum Science Center 9:00 a.m. – 3:00 p.m.
September 20th - Kick-Off Day — Davidson High School Gym 10:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.
October 25th – Mall Day / Espionage Day Bel-Air Mall, Mobile
November 1st - Game Day — University of South Alabama Mitchell Center 9:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m.
Register for Upcoming Events
Jubilee BEST Registration ALL schools wanting to participate in Jubilee BEST this fall need to click here and register your school. Schools will not be allowed to participate without first signing up through the BEST Robotics, Inc Eventbrite registration. Only one teacher from each school needs to register.
Faulkner BEST Summer Workshop Thur/Fri, July 17 & 18, 10am-3pm each day - Each student, teacher or mentor must individually sign up for this 2-day workshop and attend both days. Beginning RobotC & SolidWorks will be the focus. Those who have not had training in these areas will gain the most benefit from participating since this will be a “Beginner” class. Share this link with your students today! Space is limited! Reminders will be sent the week before to the emails they provide when registering. Click here to register.
Jubilee BEST New Teacher/Mentor Workshop hosted at the Exploreum Saturday, August 2, 9am – 3pm - This workshop is for NEW teachers/mentors only. An overview of BEST and discussion of score sheets will be the focus. It is mandatory that any NEW school competing must send a minimum of one representative. A webinar for ALL other teachers will be offered late August. Click here to register.
Camp Wrap Up
As all good things, even camp comes to an end. But, with the end of something, new beginnings are around the corner. And around your next corner is the 2013 BEST game: Gatekeeper. Kick-Off will happen, you will discover the game and rules and begin to figure out how to build your robot, create your presentation, design the exhibit booth and pull it all together with the team in just 42 days! Amazing!
But, what about now? You can hardly wait, filled with all this new information, elements of the marketing potential rolling around in your head, engineering design steps going round and round and the programming debugged – finally. So, hurry up and wait. But, there is still one fun thing to do – build and assemble a robot right now right there! Where are you – what is available? If you are at home, perhaps a kitchen, if you are visiting relatives, maybe a garage and someone with skills, experiment with what you have. Wherever you are, let’s begin.
To start, download the 2012 game consumables and returnables lists and game diagram. Using these resources, consider what you can substitute or convert from your surroundings – maybe not plywood, rather a slice of bread, not glue but syrup. Use your imagination. Go crazy! Be creative, combine things in new ways, rearrange them. But wait, what did we learn – you need an idea, and something to accomplish. You “played” the game in the fall. How can you build a similar (but not duplicate it), or even improved, robot to accomplish Warp XX? Now that you have seen some other configurations, use CAD (plugged or unplugged) to develop a new approach, use the engineering design process, brainstorm new strategies and then build. Post the evidence on BEST and Jubilee BEST Facebook pages with your material list. Engineering is fun – think outside the box. Write a 5 sentence elevator pitch selling your new robot – maybe summarize the “green” elements of it. Take photos and create a short video – wrap as much of bESTology and camp into it as possible!
As a summer bESTologist, we believe that you have earned the reward to received additional Gatekeeper HINTS!
- Goods in stock are a plus
- 1 +1 = 1 or 1 + 0 = 1 and 0 + 0 = 1 NOT!
- Your team will like hanging out with BEST this year
- It’s a small small world
- Does your town have a streetcar, trolley or subway?
- As mom says “Keep your room clean!”
Career Connection: Since you have been designing, marketing and working through a computer, a good career connection is either computer engineering or computer science. Which is a better fit for you? Check out the differences.
We hope you have enjoyed the Online Summer Camp, even without the bugs. bESTology will resume in August. Enjoy your summer. And remember, you are the BEST!
Bloom’s Taxonomy: assemble, combine, convert, create, duplicate, experiment, rearrange, summarize, write
Workforce Development: Reading Comprehension, Critical Thinking, Speaking, Active Learning, Coordination, Writing, Service Orientation, Systems Analysis, Persuasion, Complex Problem Solving, Equipment Selection, Negotiation, Installation, Systems Evaluation, Judgment And Decision Making, Technology Design, Management of Material Resources
Camp Marketing APPlied
Let’s ask ourselves, why is it that we are so familiar with the words Coke, Apple, Toyota and Airbus? One simple explanation – marketing!
Who knows about your BEST Robotics team? Your teachers? Your classmates? Your mayor? Your community? Your state senators? If you are the BEST, then you need to share that news with others. Marketing is one element of the BEST award. Let’s see what steps you can take to become the BEST of the BEST.
A good place to start is with a plan. Click here to download the MHM-Marketing-Plan-Fact-Book
Some of the marketing for this exercise is make believe. We are assuming there is a market for our robot and a company wants to actually buy it and reproduce it. But, all of the elements are real and have varying degrees of influence in your plan.
For this session, let’s choose something all of us have access to – a computer – you are using one to access this information. So, let’s select that as the product. Let’s assume you are part of the marketing team for this computer. Using the marketing plan fact book above, let’s employ the phases
- Phase 1 – collect information
- Phase 2 – devise a plan
- Phase 3 – create an approach
- Phase 4 – do it
- Phase 5 – essential – measure it and evaluate
For Phase 1, let’s begin with the economics. Assemble the background information on your product (the computer) by performing a search on the Internet. Then compare the information with the competition (pick 2 other manufacturers of computers).
Print the Points of Differentiation worksheet and complete. It should yield some subtle differences – as well as points of similarity (compare and contrast the 3 choices).
Print the Brand Positioning worksheet and complete. This will help identify why the customer makes their choices especially when you combine it with the Competitive Product Assessment worksheet. Be sure to identify the features first.
Next, categorize the information for your product (the computer), thus completing The Competitive Audit worksheet.
Now, here is the essential part that will transfer directly to your robotic team, the Brand Strategy And Promise and The Credentials Worksheet. If this is your first year participating in BEST, what else have you done to distinguish your work? Review previous bESTology posts to see some of the community connection ideas (weeks 3, 8, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18).
The Sales Worksheet is an excellent resource to apply as you plan your presentation for the BEST award – The Solution Matching Sheet will also help target that message and support the work for the exhibit booth.
The final worksheet, The Customer Overview will help you relate to the end user. In this case, how well suited are you for the machine in front of you?
Now, having worked through the plan fact book – what can you do to prepare your team for the 2013 BEST award? Any steps come to mind? What avenues do you plan to use to promote your robot? Social media? Creating an app?
Produce a marketing video (Windows Movie Maker has great free resources) to promote Gatekeeper. Although you do not know the game details, create what you think the game will be about. Hint Hint – Technology! The required minimal elements are:
- the Gatekeeper logo (found on www.jubileebest.org or www.bestinc.org )
- reference to BEST and the main BEST website www.bestinc.org
- techno music (careful, honor all copyright rules)
- minimum of 4 transitions
- title and credits
- minimal amount of narration or voice over
- minimum of 2 minutes in length
Use your imagination and be creative! Post a link to our Facebook page.
Career Connection: Marketing has many facets. Careers include marketing analyst, marketing coordinator, public relations communications coordinator and many more. Which slice of the marketing pie do you desire?
Bloom’s Taxonomy: apply, assemble, categorize, choose, collect, combine, compare, contrast, create, devise, distinguish, employ, evaluate, identify, plan, produce, relate, review, select, support
Workforce Development: Reading Comprehension, Critical Thinking, Active Learning, Coordination, Writing, Service Orientation, Systems Analysis, Persuasion, Complex Problem Solving, Negotiation, Systems Evaluation, Judgment And Decision Making, Technology Design
An essential step in robotics, and most things, is design work. Today’s segment will focus on the engineering design steps. (bESTology Week 5) So, what will we create? Today, all of us probably have used an app or two – before we even started this project. They have become an integral part of our everyday world. So, how are they constructed? Software developers, and that is you, write them. We will produce one today, a web app.
Let’s begin! Open and view The App Builder How T o by EducationPack PowerPoint presentation. It is very important to read the notes below each slide. This is a great introduction to app building. This camp will focus on a web app, not a native app. If you apply the directions given to you in the slides, they will walk you through how to begin building. Begin at the website, The App Builder creating a free account, selecting a template, or not, edit for content and combine widgets, and then publish.
Are you surfing at the beach or surfing on the web for summer fun? Let’s surf the web for engineering apps, computer science apps, robot apps and manufacturing apps. BEST applauds teams for sharing, please share your top picks with us on our Jubilee BEST Facebook page!
Career Connection: As you create this Android application that performs a specific function, you are guided by the steps of the engineering design process, and doing just what software engineers do as they develop applications that we all encounter on a daily basis. This includes business software, communication software, compilers, computer graphics, and more. Ultimately, you must plan what the application will do, decide what it looks like, decide how to structure the software, test and edit to ensure the app works correctly. Have you considered a career as a software engineer?
Bonus – for the big challenge – make your own app for MATLAB! You will need additional software as you will be creating a native app. For some suggestions you might check out MIT’s App Inventor (a web-based, free software) This site provides information on how to set-up for and install App Inventor. For more support refer to MIT’s tutorials for App Inventor.
Hint – having the skills to create a web app might be a great asset for your team in the fall for Gatekeeper!
Blooms taxonomy: apply, combine, constructed, produce, selecting, write
Workforce development: Reading Comprehension, Critical Thinking, Active Learning, Writing, Service Orientation, Complex Problem Solving, Mathematics, Equipment Selection, Troubleshooting, Installation, Operation Analysis, Judgment And Decision Making, Operation And Control, Technology Design, Programming
Camp Program “Tune In”
On Your Mark, Set, Go – Go Go Go!
We are out the GATE and off to the races. Go, Go, Go! But how do we make the robot go? Programming!
Summer Camp Day 2 we will focus on software side, and what makes it all tick. During bESTology week 7 – It’s Code! there were activities around programming and coding, converting a piece of information into another form or representation. During “camp” today, we are going to review and extend some of those things, particularly the section: BEST Robot.
During Summer Camp Day 1, you worked on formulating an idea, designing and drawing it. Today, we will take the drawings (actually we will use some existing ones) and determine how to use the computer to create the program to make the robot move.
What do you need to program? Equipment, an idea and a language. The equipment drives, if you will, the types of things you can do. You need to begin with an inventory of equipment such as motors. How many? Where do they connect to the cortex and how is the input processed? Then you need to determine what the robot task is – reach for an object? Move forward? Hold something? How long? Finally, what language is available?
For today, so everyone is on the same page and since BEST uses the VEX Cortex, we are going to use RobotC. There are many other great programming software providers, including MathWorks and EasyC, two additional outstanding BEST sponsors.
1. To begin, locate and open the VEX Cortex Video Trainer. As we did in bESTology (Week 2), you have to begin with safety (click on fundamentals, then safety). Manipulate the various links, focusing on how to become aware of potentially dangerous situations. (Hint – there are some assessments here you could share with your team in the fall).
2. Now that you can operate safely, let’s perfect our project management. Here are some tips (click on fundamentals and project management). Project management will maximize your investment of time, talent and treasures. Check out the videos, so much great information for your team! Also, since this is about programming the robot, be sure to review the Natural Language link (click on fundamentals and natural language) as well. Boolean Logic? Hint Hint – that page may come in handy this fall for Gatekeeper!
3. Moving on to the setup, check out the Build Robot with VEX Cortex (click on setup and build) for some great technical drawings. While we use the cortex, we do not build as they describe. You build your BEST robot as you determine from raw materials such as lumber, PVC pipe and more. But, for this segment, we will assume you have the robot they built. We will play in a virtual world for now.
4. Now that you have a virtual robot, it needs to perform an action. Actions rely on programming. Sample programs are provided and these steps will provide value (click on setup and download sample). Watch both videos – you will be glad in the fall when you have a challenge and need to troubleshoot why the computer is not talking to the robot, or rather the robot is not listening.
5. Next, how do you make the robot move forward? Here are some quick videos to help (click on movement and move forward). Be sure to check out the files underneath for more specifics. How about speed and direction?
6. What else can you learn from the RobotC site – examine the next to last button “Resources”. Click on forums and search for the BEST forum. This will be a helpful link during the competition season!
One in particular you will like is the last one - www.cs2n.org - enroll and enjoy!
So, you have sketched a robot (Camp CAD unplugged). You have walked through how to produce movement (Camp Program – Tune In). What is next? Check back tomorrow to discover the next phase.
**You can download and install RobotC for free for 30 days and the Robot Virtual World is free for 60 days. MathWorks and their software – Simulink and Matlab have more information as well. We encourage you to explore the websites of all of our BEST partners!
Bloom’s Taxonomy: create, design, discover, examine, extend, formulate, locate, manipulate, prepare, produce, review, sketch
Workforce Development: Reading Comprehension, Active Listening, Critical Thinking, Active Learning, Coordination, Monitoring, Systems Analysis, Complex Problem Solving, Mathematics, Equipment Selection, Troubleshooting, Installation, programming
Camp CAD unplugged
Are you ready to design and build? First you must have an idea and a plan. As we focus on technology, we discover how CAD can enhance this process. CAD (Computer Aided Design), a recommended component of the BEST Award, has unlimited applications in the real-world. SolidWorks, a BEST national sponsor, is our recommended vendor for CAD but Google SketchUp and many other software programs are available. Now what? Well, let’s get busy with our camp activities.
Jump aboard the BEST time machine and let’s travel back into history. The date is 1950. Electric appliances and tools are becoming abundant. As a BEST engineer, you are curious how these electronic marvels work. Using an “old fashion” method, pencil and paper, let’s create a technical drawing:
Camp Activity – Day One:
Goal – Create a technical drawing
Materials – graph paper, pencil, eraser, straightedge, tape measure (metric and US measurements) and an old small appliance or power tool that can be disassembled
Resources – Creating a technical drawing, Print free graph paper, Terminology, Basics of freehand drawing and writing, Metric and imperial (US) measurement converter, Scale drawings by Virtual Nerd
Let’s begin – Closely examine the tool or appliance you chose and remember orientation. Begin measuring EVERYTHING and determine a scale. Separate the parts of the object and to the BEST of your ability begin sketching (following the suggestions in the above resources). As you disassemble, make a new drawing for each reveal. You will be creating assembly drawings, also known as exploded view drawings. With each step of the breakdown, draw the part, and distinguish how it fits together. Be sure to include and identify things like screws, and how they fit, how long they are what type they are, list as much detail as you can, preparing working drawings. Here are some samples in a variety of fields.
Next, include titles/labels for each part of the diagram and name the associated part number. See an example of BEST Inc. drawings.
Like all designers, be sure to sign your work as demonstrated in the above resource, “Basics of freehand drawing and writing”.
Once you finish the drawing, when you have access to your CAD software, you can now quickly reproduce the paper form into an electronic format. Look how fast this will happen in the fall with Gatekeeper! And, in the fall you will take an idea and generate it in CAD software, rather than taking something apart, you will be creating it.
Career Connection: If you think CAD is fun and interesting, check out CARCAM - and see what else you can do – and earn!
Advanced Technology: If any electronics were discovered while disassembling your tool or appliance, determine their name, function and manufacturer. Examples may include circuit boards, switches, logic controllers and more. Predict whether the same components are used in newer tools and appliances or how they have become more advanced.
Bloom’s Taxonomy: breakdown, create, determine, diagram, distinguish, examine, identify, label, list, name, predict, prepare, reproduce, separate, sketch
Work Force Development: Reading Comprehension, Active Listening, Critical Thinking, Active Learning, Systems Analysis, Complex Problem Solving, Mathematics, Judgment And Decision Making, Technology Design
TIE IT TOGETHER!
It’s almost time to sing Schools Out For Summer! As the school year comes to a close, let’s reflect back on our 18-week journey with Gatekeeper hints scattered throughout.
We have tinkered with technology, compared robots with machines, had a byte of pi, powered up, got lean and mean, all while becoming the BEST we can be!
As you reflect back, at what moment did you realize that you are a bESTologist? Was it while you were experimenting with a brainstorming activity? Was it while you were demonstrating your engineering writing skills? Can you identify the most challenging 18-week activity for you as a bESTologist? What new skills can you demonstrate and how can these skills be applied to high-tech manufacturing in your region?
We have been in high gear for the last 17 weeks. Let’s wind down, enjoy summer then build for Gatekeeper!
RESOURCES FOR END-OF-THE-YEAR-ROBOT-CELEBRATION (enjoy robot cake and robot videos!)
- Navy’s robot dances
- Engineering students and Coke
- Dancing robots
- Small World in a Nano Factory
- Can your robot dance?
- A flying robot
- Robot Cake recipe
Brainstorming: Discuss and identify five ways your BEST Robotics team has improved or grown over the past 17 weeks. What five new skills or ideas have you synthesized and how will they be applied to your team this coming year?
Writing: Write your version of the upcoming game. Paraphrase based on what you have done or learned over the past few weeks. Use specific clues (there is at least one in each week) to justify your determination.
BEST Robot: How many new ways can you manipulate your robot? Generate a list and assign a value to each of these, according to the ease of construction, ease of use, reach ability, and use of materials. Compare your past robots to the new ideas you are generating.
Community: Conclude this journey with a celebration! Even the BEST deserve to celebrate. Produce a list of your mentors, business and industry partners, parents and community stakeholders. Invite them to join you for an end of the year celebration and a beginning to Gatekeeper. Using Pinterest and other social networking applications to research and list robot party ideas. Have fun and post your photos on the BEST Robotics Facebook page.
Bloom’s Taxonomy: compare, conclude, demonstrate, experiment, generate, identify, justify, list, manipulate, operate, paraphrase, produce, recall, reorganize, synthesized, value, write.
Workforce Development Skills: reading comprehension, active listening, critical thinking, speaking, active learning, coordination, writing, persuasion, complex problem solving, negotiation, operation analysis, quality control, systems evaluation, judgment and decision making, technology design
BEST Business 102 – bESTology Week 17
BEST Business 101 focused on building your team’s business plan. Moving forward, BEST Business 102 spotlights marketing your product – your BEST robot. The BEST Award provides many opportunities to market your product – the exhibit booth, marketing presentation, spirit and sportsmanship as well as the BEST t-shirt award.
There are several marketing components your BEST team could accomplish now to jumpstart your team for Gatekeeper. Reviewing BEST Award score sheets, a BEST marketing campaign should include a form of “technology”. What form do you have? Website, Facebook page, Instagram, Pinterest, Twitter or other social networking accounts to share updates and photos about your team? How about a corporate PowerPoint or Vimeo presentation? Have you created a layout for your company’s brochure or business cards? Designing and setting up the basics will prove beneficial in the fall. Let’s gear up for Gatekeeper!
- How to develop a marketing plan
- Have you developed a marketing plan for your team?
- Let’s market your robotics team
- Prototyping and product development behind the scenes
- Two marketing tips from Steve Jobs
- 10 Tips for a successful website
- Interviewing: Elevator Pitch
- Powerpoint to Vimeo….Easy as 1-2-3
Brainstorming: Review your team’s score sheets from the last BEST Award competition. Develop new applications to improve your team’s marketing success. Describe a new and improved way to brand your team. Knowing Gatekeeper is a game of technology, discuss possible team name ideas.
Writing: Every BEST team needs an elevator pitch. Individually as team members, each person designs and writes an elevator pitch. Next, rate them and choose the BEST one. Memorize and practice the elevator pitch to share with mentors, sponsors and the community. Remember to use elements of your overall marketing plan.
BEST Robot: In addition to design and development of the robot, naming and embellishing the robot is fun and educational as well. Generate a list of robot names and illustrate various ways to revise the robot to win the Most Photogenic Robot Award. Assess how each name and change would enhance your team’s marketing campaign.
Community Connection: Create a flyer to approach area businesses/mentors to recruit them to assist with your BEST team this fall. Combine the impact BEST makes on students and schools, describe your product (the robot), and how BEST benefits them as a partner. Additional helpful hints are provided in the above resources.
Bloom’s Taxonomy: assess, change, choose, combine, create, describe, design, develop, discuss, evaluate, generate, indicate, illustrate, memorize, practice, rate, review, revise, use, write
Workforce Development Skills: reading comprehension, active listening, critical thinking, speaking, active learning, coordination, writing, instruction, learning strategies, social perceptiveness, persuasion, judgment and decision making
BEST Business 101
This is a fantastic time to be entering the business world, because business is going to change more in the next 10 years than it has in the last 50. Bill Gates
Gates is the ultimate programming machine. He believes everything can be defined, examined, reduced to essentials, and rearranged into a logical sequence that will achieve a particular goal. Stewart Alsop
As the 2012/2013 school year comes to a close, it is time to gear up for Gatekeeper! bESTology Week 16 and 17 will empower BEST teams with ideas to enhance the connection to business and industry. Are you ready to leave the gate and to proceed down a logical path to the BEST finish line? We are! Open the gate and let’s roll!
- Forbes Business Plan
- How to write a business plan
- Writing an Executive Summary and Company Description
- Branding your Robotics Team
Brainstorming: BEST Robotics is more than a robot. BEST Robotics reflects the corporate world by embracing product development to product delivery. To ensure success, a company must be filled with diverse individuals with varied talents. Brainstorm and assemble a list of all job descriptions for your BEST team and attach each position with a real-world job title.
Writing: Use these descriptions and post the jobs school-wide. Encourage interested students to apply. Collect the applications, judge them on their completeness; discriminate among them for skill match; and then use the results to prioritize “hiring” new team members. Advanced teams may consider the following: job announcement process, hiring/firing procedure, resume and interview process and more!
Writing: Develop and write a business plan for your BEST Robotics team. Devise the vision and mission statements and list the goals of your corporate team. Prepare an Executive Summary; this will be useful this fall when searching for mentors and sponsors.
BEST Robot: Breakdown and translate your BEST robot elements into the following categories: chassis/base, tower/arm, gripper. Discuss the following: Is each component unique? How could that component be redesigned to be simpler, but as effective, or more effective? Reflecting on past competitions, identify other designs possibly suitable to complete the same tasks. Defend designs that might be more suitable for future competitions. Connecting with your corporate arm of your team, predict why your team’s robot will be the BEST suited to succeed at Gatekeeper. (New teams: search the Internet for past BEST robots. Photos can easily be found on hub websites. Visit bestinc.org and click on hubs nearest you).
Community Connection: Identify ONE technology company in your region. Set up an infographic expressing the following: name of company, vision and mission statements, product name(s), product branding, hardware or software involved, target audience, uniqueness of product, years in business, diversity of products and career opportunities.
Bloom’s Taxonomy: assemble, attach, breakdown, collect, defend, develop, devise, discriminate, discuss, express, identify, judge, list, match, predict, prepare, set up, translate, write
Workforce Development Skills: reading comprehension, active listening, critical thinking, speaking, active learning, coordination, writing, social perceptiveness, systems analysis, complex problem solving, negotiation, management of personnel resources, operation analysis, systems evaluation, judgment and decision making
Next Week: BEST Business 102 – Marketing and More!
Decisions! Decisions! bESTology Week 15
Steve Jobs once said, “Deciding what not to do is as important as deciding what to do.” Is it possible to apply his wisdom to decision-making robots?
A decision – an action or process of solving a problem or completing a task – is generally associated with human reasoning. Today in the 21st century, robots are able to make decisions. Language is instrumental in human decision-making, therefore language must be key for robotic decision making as well.
All robots have a “brain”. Their “brain” must be programmed. Programming “languages” allow a robot to make a decision. Robots do not like ambiguity when making decisions; therefore they need to know very clearly which choice to make under which circumstances.
bESTology Week 15 explores how robots make decisions!
Brainstorming: NASA and the U.S. Military use decision-making robots to accomplish mission objectives quicker and safer. As a BEST team, discuss how input from the robot’s environment is instrumental to the robot’s decision making. List five sensors commonly found on military and space exploration robots. Explain how each sensor plays a role in the robot’s decision-making process.
Writing: View the following videos: GroundBot Decision-Making Robots Choose five actions from each robot and write “logical connectives”. Example: If there is water and there is no obstacle in the way the robot will enter the water. If there is neither water nor there are obstacles in the way the robot will not enter the water. Write logical connectives using “and” “or” “not” “if and only if” “neither-nor” and “if-then”. Compare and contrast logical connectives, truth tables and Boolean algebra.
BEST Robot: Determine each function a BEST robot can perform with the consumable and returnable kits provided. Applying logical connectives (“and” “or” “not” “if and only if” “neither-nor” and “if-then”) make decisions of tasks the robot can or can not complete. Next, evaluate new items not included in kit. Then apply logical connectives, for example: If we had plastic corrugated cardboard and gorilla glue, the gripper would be more durable.
Community Connection: Using Skype or similar Internet communication programs, arrange to interview a person either from NASA or the U.S. military who works with decision-making robots. Be sure to include the following key words in your interview: sensors, environmental feedback, robot “brain”, logic, types of decisions, career opportunities and programming language.
Bloom’s Taxonomy: apply, arrange, choose, compare, contrast, determine, discuss, examine, evaluate, list, write
Workforce Development Skills: reading comprehension, active listening, critical thinking, speaking, active learning, writing, social perceptiveness, judgment and decision making